A431 cells are derived from an 85-year old female epidermis. The epidermoid carcinoma cell line expresses very high levels of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, and displays a high basal activation of the MAPK pathway. As such, further activation of MAPK pathway components beyond basal levels of activation is difficult for targets such as MEK and ERK, even with serum starvation. However, use of an EGF receptor inhibitor such as AG1478 can dramatically reduce the MAPK signaling pathway activation. STAT signaling via the EGF receptor can also be induced in A431 cells, and STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation are all readily detectable.
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